Programming in Fortran 95

Download Fortran 95 course, PDF tutorial for beginners to learn the basics of Fortran programming language.

Table of contents

  • A very simple program
  • Running the program
  • Variables and expressions
  • Other variable types: integer, complex and character
  • Intrinsic functions
  • Logical controls
  • Advanced use of if and logical comparisons
  • Repeating ourselves with loops: do
  • The stop statement
  • Expressions and the assignment statement
  • Control instructions
  • The tables
  • Reading and writing operations
  • The procedures
  • Modules
  • Structures or derived types
  • The DFLIB graphic library
  • Procedures: Advanced concepts
  • Modules: Advanced concepts
  • Pointers
  • Optimization notions
  • Execution in command lines
  • Array arithmetic
  • GOOD PROGRAMMING STYLE
  • Readability
  • Self-checking code
  • Write clear code that relates to the physics
  • INPUT TO AND OUTPUT FROM A F95 PROGRAM
  • F95 statements for I/O
  • GRAPHICS AND VISUALISATION
  • Plotting a data file
  • Getting help
  • Further examples
  • Printing graphs into PostScript files
  • Functions
  • Formal definition
  • Subroutines
  • Local and global variables
  • Passing arrays to subroutines and functions
  • Size and shape of array known
  • Arrays of unknown shape and size
  • The intent and save attributes
  • USING MODULES
  • Modules
  • public and private attributes
  • NUMERICAL PRECISION AND MORE ABOUT VARIABLES
  • Entering numerical values
  • Numerical Accuracy

 

Introduction to Fortran

Machine code (numeric notation in octal);

  • mnemonic code assemblers;
  • 1954: project creation of the first language symbolic FORTRAN by John Backus from IBM (Mathematical FORmula

TRANslating System):

  • Efficiency of generated code (performance);
  • Quasi natural language for scientists (productivity, maintenance, readability).
  • 1957: Delivery of the first compilers;
  • 1958: Fortran II (IBM) ⇒ independently computable sub programs.
  • Generalization to other manufacturers but:
  • Divergence of extensions ⇒Normalization requirement;
  • ASA American Standards Association (ANSI).

Committee for the development of a FORTRAN standard. 1966: Fortran IV (Fortran 66);

  • Evolution by divergent extensions. . .
  • 1977: Fortran V (Fortran 77).

almost compatible:
no iteration of the null loops (OD I = 1.0)

  • Main news:
  • type character;
  • IF-THEN-ELSE;
  • Direct access I / O and OPEN.

Anne Fouilloux Patrick Corde (anne.fouilloux@ecmwf.int Patrick.Corde@idris.fr Language Fortran (Base)) January 29, 2018 8/265
Introduction History

  • Work of the X3J3 / ANSI and WG5 / ISO committees to modernize Fortran 77:
  • Standardization: inclusion of extensions;
  • Development: new concepts already exploited by newer languages APL,

Algol, PASCAL, Ada; . . .

  • Performances in scientific computing;
  • Fully compatible with Fortran 77.
  • 1991/1992: Fortran 90 standard (ISO and ANSI);
  • 1994: Fortran 90 Cray and IBM first compilers;
  • 1997: Fortran 95 standard (ISO and ANSI);
  • 1999: First compilers Fortran 95 on Cray T3E then IBM RS / 6000;
  • September 2004: Fortran Standard 2003 (ISO and ANSI);
  • October 2010: Fortran Standard 2008 (ISO and ANSI).

 

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